Issue #24 - #27
Updated February 24, 2000
INVESTING IN THE STUDY OF THE BIOFIELD
Monterey Instituite for the Study of Altenative Healing Arts (MISAHA)
The biophysics of today is the application of physics in biological sciences. What I call "Alternative Biophysics" is the Physics of life - the physical description of the universe including life and consciousness - the physics of the future. This paper is an appeal to insightful statesmen either in the government or in philanthropy to dedicate appropriate resources to the study into this ultimate biophysics. This will bring scientific, practical and, perhaps, military dividends much greater than the currently popular investments in fundamental science. There is a growing army of pioneering scientists in each scientific discipline challenging old assumptions. Political leaders and managers can engage them to break the natural conservatism of the scientific community.
ASSUMPTIONS ARE WHAT WE LIVE BY
We live with many assumptions regarding the world and our place in it. Indeed, who knows what we are here for? The great philosophical systems logically developed particular sets of assumptions, often opposite. For instance, Epicures assumed that there is nothing beyond this life and therefore enjoying life is what it is all about. This is the essence of Hedonism which doesn't praise cheap and careless enjoyment, as it is often interpreted. One can set noble and courageous personal goals and experience a great satisfaction if successful. The opposite comes from Buddha: there is more suffering in life than enjoyment - our expectations are not met, we lose friends and loved ones, we lose our own lives. To diminish suffering do not get attached to earthly pleasures (love, power, etc.); the purpose of life is to enrich your karma and, finally, to break out of the circle of reincarnations. Uniting with the source, the Atman, in nirvana, and perhaps to become Buddha, is the most joyous event of the soul.
Our assumptions are often not explicit. When we drive a car on a two-way road we implicitly assume that all cars running in the opposite direction are technically sound and are driven by sane, alert, sober, experienced and not suicidal drivers. We know that this is not necessarily true, and if we were to analyze this assumption, we would be scared to death every time we hit the road. The implicit assumption of any religion as a social governing organization is that the human population is controlled not by rational reasoning but by emotions and irrational beliefs, therefore, for the sake of preservation of the social order dogma should never be challenged. This assumption was tested and proved true in a millennium-long governing experience of the Catholic Church and seems to be relevant to contemporary enlightened scientific communities.
Our scientific assumptions are based on scientific (disciplined) observations and on theories supported by them and therefore assumed to be correct. Historically, basic assumptions have been periodically revised under the pressure of new observations and new theories replaced the old ones. Many of current assumptions have been challenged on theoretical and experimental bases. Only one issue of the Journal of Scientific Exploration (V. 14, # 2, 1999) contains articles and book reviews that challenge the widespread astrophysical concept of Big Bang and the expanding universe (Halton Arp ), the inviolability of Darwinism and the natural selection as the driving force of biological evolution (Remy Chauvin  and Lev Beloussov ), the persistent expensive effort to materialize hot fusion while ignoring the most promising experimental results of low temperature nuclear reactions (John O'M Bockris ).
It is currently assumed that the initial state of everything in the world is Chaos and all observable organizations from galaxies to living organisms and the biosphere of our planet somehow, perhaps by chance, emerged out of this. The opposite assumption was formulated by Alexander Bogdanov  at the beginning of this century: the initial state of everything is organization. The world is made of organizations of things, living beings, and ideas. All organizations have something in common: they are dynamic (have a life cycle) and being kept together by a control function (force fields, genetic programs, and ideas - as I understand it). Independently on Bogdanov, these ideas were developed by N. Weiner in his Cybernetics and L. von Bertalanffy in General Systems Theory.
What is special about scientific assumptions is that they influence the distribution of social resources dedicated to support fundamental science. Taking into account the military and political justification of programs such as space exploration and nuclear energy, the cost to the society of ignoring alternative fundamental assumptions is very high. The government in its decisions relies on hierarchies of social organizations in particular scientific disciplines. The latter are held by the firmness of basic assumptions (similar to religious dogmas). Revisions of assumptions are and always were very painful because they destabilize the social organization of science and may obstruct the "umbilical cord" feeding it. Here, by the way, comes the "virtue" of professionalism which is essentially knowledge of, and obedience to, the norms of a discipline including current basic assumptions. Thus, even to look at the observations which do not fit the paradigm is "nonprofessional" and the resistance to any challenge is natural and understandable. As the old joke says, "if facts do not fit the theory, it is too bad... for the facts."
ASSUMPTION OF THE BIOFIELD
One of the alternative assumptions currently rejected by the scientific hierarchy has the potential of a significant breakthrough in our knowledge of the world and life. It is the assumption of the existence of a separate physical field operating living organisms and carrying biological information - the biofield. There is enough credible scientific observations accumulated by now to take this assumption seriously and to invest sufficient social resources in a proper scientific study of it.
The concept of the biofield was initially engendered in developmental biology at the turn of this century. It started with the question "How do nonspecialized embryonic cells know what particular specialized cells and tissues to become?" Since the nuclei of all cells contain the same genetic material, it was suggested that a nonlocal field, a "blueprint" determines and operates the developmental process. Marco Bischof recently presented a comprehensive history of biofield theories.  By mid century the biofield as an epiphenomenon of genome became a commonly accepted assumption in biology and this was until the onset of biochemistry and molecular biology in the 1950's. With all the great successes of the new biochemical paradigm, the view of the organism from the top down, the focus on the organism as a whole, as a tremendously complex cybernetic (self-controlled) system was lost.
The biofield, as the physical carrier, is needed not only for the operation of the developmental program but for the operation of all vital programs performed by all living organisms. These basic programs include development, maintenance, reproduction and death with their physiological and behavioral aspects. The latter utilizes the mind and memory that translates perceived (sensed) signals into meanings and controls behavior providing conservation of the organism, the population and the species  (see the graph).
I use the word mind rather than consciousness in order to distinguish the general decision-making mechanism from awareness associated with the latter.
It is clear to me as for many biologists that the operation of the organism cannot possibly be performed by a local chemical reading of genetic information.  Let's imagine a kitten reacting to an unexpected threat. All kittens do it the same way: in milliseconds they arc their body tail up, the fur stands up and they show their teeth and hiss. Add to this the immediate release of adrenaline, holding the breath, increasing heartbeat, etc. This is a species-specific pattern of behavior and physiological reaction, thus it is genetically determined. Can one imagine a chain of chemical reactions starting with copying a gene in a diffusion-driven process, synthesizing appropriate RNA, proteins, ferments, etc. and engaging all the involved physiological systems and muscles by sending electrical and chemical signals to appropriate organs? All these processes are too slow to account for all
the above events. It must be an interim control system operating this complex reaction and this control system must have a physical carrier, that I call biofield, although physics cannot currently sense and measure it.
In contemporary biology Chance is assumed to be the God. Indeed, amino acids were found in comets, they could be synthesized by nature under some realistic conditions. But how to jump from this to a simplest organism? A bacterium reportedly has around 2000 genes (compared to human's 45,000). A single-cell organism is incomparably more complex than a Boeing 747. It realizes all the four basic programs of life depicted in the graph. The Boeing 747 is developed and made by men from comparatively trivial material, "fed", navigated and operated by men, i.e. it does not have in itself any of the vital programs of life. Why in the world is our planet not littered with boeings by now? Why excavations did not bring one tiny iron screw that spontaneously emerged from the ore? The question is as silly as is the assumption that a simplest form of life could emerge from amino acids by chance, that mutations in organisms leading to the emergence of new species occur by chance, and that the adaptive natural selection is the only creative force of biological evolution. The tiny screw is an object of a design, in this case - by man. Science is the disciplined way of studying the Design, call it Great Plan of Nature, after the materialist, Lamarck. 
Having no definition for ideas such as spirit or etheric and mental bodies, I suggest that the biofield is one of the physical fields studiable through scientific observation and generalization. First, the biofield as the carrier of the general control system, the overall coordination function of the organism, must be capable of communicating with all control subsystems of the organism including the mind and memory, nervous, humoral, and electromagnetic control subsystems with their different information carriers (electric, chemical, and electromagnetic), as well as what in Chinese tradition is called Qi - usually translated as vital energy - circulating through acupuncture meridians and chakras. Secondly, this biofield must be responsible for all parapsychological phenomena such as anomalous information transfer (clairvoyance, precognition, etc.), psychokinesis (interaction with other physical fields and man-made devices), and psi healing (normalization of physiological processes through organism-to-organism communication with an intent).
The following are but a few examples of how the biofield can interfere with other physical fields through mere intent of specially gifted, and in some cases regular, individuals.
• Interference with weak (internuclear) forces:
- speeding up and slowing down the rate of americium 241Am nuclear decay 
- stimulation of low temperature nuclear transmutation of lead into gold (see below in this article)
• Interference with electromagnetic fields:
- rotation of the plane of polarization of a polarized laser beam by 30 ang.min. and 7° ang.
- induction of a temporary peak in the Raman spectrum of tap water at 2200 1/cm 
- temporary changes in the microstructure of water as observed through scattering of laser beam l=632.8 nm at various angles 
- deviation of the electrical resistance of a thermostabilized thermoresistor 
- increase of adsorption and dispersion of a monochromatic laser radiation (l=10.6 mm and 4 mm) by air, nitrogen and carbon dioxide 
- deviation of UV adsorption spectra of DNA water solution in the area of 220- 280 nm three independent observations [17, 18, 19]
- induction of a periodic electrical signal from a piezoelectric sensor 
- induction of a pulse magnetic field (100nT and up to 27x106 nT),  rotation of a compasses needle [21, 22]
• Interference with the gravitation field:
- moving the plate of an encased precise analytical balance equivalent to 100 mg force 
• Interference with performance of man-made devices:
- predetermined deviation from randomness of various random number generators (this study has been conducted in at least two highly credible scientific laboratories in the US showing the probability of randomness p<10 -13power) [23, 24]
- increase of the concentration of dislocations (missing atoms in microcrystalline structure) in "metal bending" experiments with local increase of surface (Vickers) hardness 
The above is by no means a comprehensive review of published scientific observations. I intentionally did not mention observations of phenomena such as dematerialization and materialization, moving of material objects and transteleportation, and many others that represent a very peculiar interference of the biofield with physical mass (see for instance Song's article reviewed in this issue). 
These and similar observations along with the well registered phenomena of remote viewing and precognition by Hal Puthoff and Rassel Targ at Stanford Research Institute,  that were confirmed in at least four other laboratories,  stimulated a number of physicists to develop a theoretical basis for incorporating these phenomena into the physical description of the universe.
Considering the history of physics, Chanlin Zhang  wrote that each major branch of physics - classical physics, electrodynamics, statistical physics and quantum physics - went through identifying the object of study, and developing a special way of thinking and a special mathematics for it. The object of biophysics of the future is life (and all related to life phenomena, I would add) but the way of thinking and the mathematical apparatus are yet to be developed. The majority of physicists working in this field introduce a complex eight- or ten-dimensional matrixes (topologies) that allow them to reconcile apparent conflicts between causality and precognition (E. Rauscher ), to assert the possibility for a living being to mentally influence the real four-dimensional world through "reciprocal" imaginary realm (W. Tiller ), to store and transfer information within a torsion field without dissipation of energy (G. Shipov ), or to present the physical picture of the world as a triangle with Qi (biofield) added to mass-energy (S. Inomata ). I wrote about these approaches in more detail elsewhere. 
The latest development I came across is the theory of a five-dimensional space-time continuum although English physicists including Thompson and Crooks explored the idea of the fourth spatial dimension of Riemann's topology to account for paranormal phenomena demonstrated by renowned mediums of the time at the beginning of 20th century. James Beichler offers a mathematical model based on Einstein-Kaluza formalism  where the entanglement of the extensions of elementary particles and their organizations in the real fifth (fourth spatial) dimension provides a unified single field that includes gravity, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics as well as life, consciousness, and biophysical ("paraphysical" as he calls it) communication. 
James Edmonds, Jr. suggests that only 16 out of 32 supercomplex numbers of the Dirac's matrix fully describe the whole physics known today. When all 32 numbers will be made use of "[a]ll kind of wild things are possible here in full Dirac."  Testable hypotheses, such as Rauscher's - using a long-range space shuttle for determining the actual velocity of mental (biofield) signals and their possible attenuation at extremely long distance  (also proposed by Cleve Backster ) - are offered rarely. However, these theoretical studies are aimed at establishing the new way of thinking mentioned by Zhang or, in other words, at establishing a conceptual framework that might eventually incorporate phenomena of life and consciousness.
Although, as it was shown, biofield can interact with other physical fields, this does not mean that it can be reduced to any of these physical fields, therefore the prevailing feeling is that there must be at least one yet unknown fundamental interaction in addition to the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational interactions currently recognized in physics. Interestingly enough, the simplest system possessing biofield and capable of imprinting memory of it into the surrounding space seems to be DNA molecule  (see Gariaev et al. article reviewed in this issue).
The specific nature of the biofield is supported by experiments on human biofield interaction with various biological objects from bacteria to plants and to humans when any electromagnetic communication was excluded. Again, this article is not intended to present a comprehensive literature review on this subject. A review of more than 150 controlled studies conducted by 1994 is presented by Daniel Benor.  and new reports regularly appear in parapsychological periodicals, journals on alternative medicine, and other frontier science periodicals. 
Among scientifically sound studies reviewed by Benor are those that established interactions of healers, i.e. gifted biofield operators, with enzymes and cells (including malignant cells) in vitro and in vivo, fungi/yeasts, bacteria, single-cell organisms, animals and humans . The latter were observed in both laboratory and clinical conditions and included verified diagnostics and alleviation of serious malfunction. In a brief comment on the cover of the book Larry Dossey calls the body of scientifically credible literature reviewed by Benor "one of the best-kept secrets of out time."
The above-mentioned experiments seem to have shown that the biofield as the carrier of the biological information cannot be significantly blocked by any physical screening, that the effect does not depend on the distance (the biofield, unlike the known isotropic physical fields such as centered gravitational or electromagnetic fields, seems to be non-isotropic which can explain the absence of attenuation in reverse proportion to the square of distance, r2), and that an intentional (or emotional) bond must be established between the operator and the subject (or object). A good illustration for the latter provides the long-running and meticulously designed study of the effect of operators on random number generators (RNG) at Princeton University: an operator affects only one RNG on which he/she focuses attention while all other RNG in the laboratory and in the world are not affected.  Summarizing the above, the following tentative definition can be proposed.
The biofield is a specific physical field associated with any and all forms of life. The information carried by the biofield is based on the entire genetic material of the organism at any stage of its ontogenic development and provides operative control of all vital programs of the organism with their physiological and behavioral aspects. Individual biofields are capable of interacting with biofields of other organisms and other physical fields, incurring changes and/or obtaining information and meanings, along established informational-emotional bonds. Intensity of this quality varies broadly among members of a biological population.
As one can see, this concept is different from the R. Sheldrake's morphic field and morphic resonance  since the latter is presumed to carry all the vital and intellectual information developed to date while the individual genome serves as an attuned "receiver." In our model such receiver quality can be ascribed to cells, tissues, organs and control subsystems of the organism in relation to its individual biofield rooted in the genome.
Interestingly, the popular negation of the phenomena and of the accumulated knowledge in the field comes from professional conjurors who use their trade methods, i.e. to detract attention from the subject: "see, I can bend the spoon by the slide of hands." The better educated "career skeptics" seem to forget that any negative statement in science is as responsible as a positive one: any negation must be scientifically proven.
One of the arguments against studying the biofield and the phenomena associated with it is that the obtained experimental results are not reproducible. It is understood that complex actions and reactions of organisms depend on a broad variety of internal and external conditions of the organism that never will be precisely defined or reproduced. This can be called the "uncertainty principle" of biophysics that often, but not always, can be overcome by a probabilistic approach and what requires the new way of thinking. Thus, it would be incorrect to say that none of the parapsychological experiments with gifted psi operators were reproduced. For instance, experiments on rotating the plane of polarization were repeated with different operators, although with a different quantitative effect. [11,12] The same was with UV adsorption spectra of DNA in water solutions (see above [17-19]), and with measuring magnetic field emanated from healers' hands, [43,44] and with destroying cancer cells in vitro [45,46] It is not the results that are not repeatable but the conditions of the experiment. It should be recognized that (1) very few people have exceptionally strong psi abilities, (2) those who have may perform variably depending on their psychological and physiological conditions as well as on time, geographical location, and psychological factors of the environment, (3) the effect may be directly correlated with the quality of the information-emotional bond between the operator and the object. Accordingly, in such studies averaging results of a series of runs does not make sense as well as the null hypothesis of random occurrence. In experiments on the biofield interaction with other physical fields the experimental error can be easily determined by a metrological analysis of the measuring device for the best run.
WHAT RETURN CAN SOCIETY EXPECT FROM INVESTING INTO BIOFIELD STUDY
I will start with a personal example. I suffered from back pain (radiculitis) for more than 20 years. In 1985, with a group of 50 Americans I traveled to Mazatlan, Mexico where all of us were treated by Filipino psi healer, Rommi Bulgarin. He worked on my back only five minutes and I have not had any back problem since. If one gifted healer could efficaciously treat 50 back pain sufferers per day, 25 days per month, he could cost-effectively help 15,000 people in a year (say 10,000 considering 70% success rate). The problem is that the number of really gifted psi (biofield) healers is much smaller than the number of those who may think they are, and the society must protect its members not only from a possible medical harm but also from false expectations. Healing is not reducable to a set of standardized procedures and a harmless and efficacious healer cannot be certified by testing his/her knowledge in a way customary in our technological age. However, our society already has a mechanism for selecting, teaching, and utilizing artists, actors, singers (and capable scientists) - by performance. Thus, to make use of the talent of gifted biofield healers a certification procedure should be developed based on the outcome in clinical trials. These trials should cover a limited number of pathological conditions selected in accordance with defined criteria  for individual healers and controlled by (compared to) the outcome of standardized medical practices rather than placebo effect.  If a healer is capable of achieving results by engaging the patient's biofield through his/her belief in miracles, it is good enough from the practical stand point.
The scientific dividend of studying the effect of gifted healers can be much greater. By observing physiological responses to psi healing, medical science would come closer to the understanding of the general control system of the organism and the biofield as its carrier. Looking at the organism as a super-complex cybernetic system will lead to a rational structuring of pathology and to incorporation of the ancient concepts of prana or Qi utilized in acupuncture.
Last year the angiogram showed a total obstruction of all but one of my cardiac arteries. My father died from a cardiac infarction at the age of 64 and I was 66. Cardiovascular disease looks like a genetically predetermined program of death. Installing bypasses seems to be a temporary relief that is not intended to and should not interfere with the cause - the program. Indeed, bypasses often get plugged up, sometimes in a year. The question is "How come that in up to 30% cases the surgery does reverse the program of death for 10 to 20 years?" Or how to explain results of the sham surgery when the chest cavity was opened and just sewed back and the symptoms of heart disease were reversed in 80% of patients?  May it be that the main effect of the open heart operation is a shock to the biofield changing the program of death? How any intervention - surgical, chemical (pharmaceutical) or suggestive (placebo) - interacts with the general control system of the organism? These and other important questions may be answered only when the general control system of the organism is understood. And this will require the identification of its carrier, the biofield, including the physical basis of acupuncture.
We wrongly assume that acupuncture is another teachable technology and, responding to the market demand, produce thousands of marginally-effective practitioners throughout the world. Indeed, meta-analyses of publications on acupuncture conducted in three European countries and the US showed that acupuncture may be good for pain relief and drug abuse only.  The original art of acupuncture is capable of reversing great many diseases, however in ancient China the master selected an apprentice by criteria known to him alone. The same as a vocal teacher selects students to his class - one has to have a voice to begin with. It is this, "artistic" acupuncture does real medical miracles to learn from.
In the early 1980s the Chinese government initiated a search for psi-gifted children. The public response was tremendous and a group of highly gifted individuals was selected and specially trained by masters. Reported in an 1988 experiment,  six psi-gifted and specially trained individuals were able to operate regular pocket calculators at a distance, mentally turning them on and multiplying two given three-digit figures so that the tester could read correct results on the screens in 41 out of 51 runs. If this is possible and if pairs of those six people could correctly communicate "40 and more Chinese characters" between Shanghai and Beijing, then the US Government may not bother looking for a spy that presumably handed over the briefcase atomic bomb secrets to the Chinese government. In the remote viewing Puthoff and Targ's experiments  the operators were probably less capable. Wouldn't it be wise for our society to recognize the potential of bioinformation phenomena as the Chinese government did?
We have in the US a system of special education for children gifted in arts and science but not for the psi-gifted. Such a school would have a potential to grow into a great scientific research center on biofield. However, the above-mentioned experiments can and should be repeated with other gifted individuals, already available, and one can expect that results will be most important for science and very practical for mankind. Actually, if only one individual in the world, Thomas Morton Green of Brazil, could transform six unfertilized eggs into normal chicks in 14 minutes, as observed and reported by Dr. Lee Pulos,  this alone is enough to put in question all our current knowledge of the world.
Instead of encouraging research in this field, our society allows the scientific community to prosecute those courageous scientists who dare to. At the latest annual meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, June 1999, in Albuquerque, Dr. John O'M Bockris, until recently Distinguished Professor of Chemistry of the Texas A&M University, shared with the audience a sad personal story. In 1992 someone approached him suggesting to reproduce in his laboratory an alchemical reaction that reportedly somewhere produced gold out of a mixture of components containing lead. The inquirer was willing to pay for assembling a bench-top installation and conducting the experiment. Dr. Bockris is a worldwide known electrochemist whose list of publications (more than 600) is a 3/4"-thick a book. The laboratory headed by Dr. Bockris employed 18 highly qualified scientists and had an impeccable scientific reputation. The laboratory was previously involved in a study of low-temperature nuclear reactions where tritium and helium were obtained from deuterium in a lattice-induced nuclear reaction and Dr. Bockris therefore assumed that first, heavy nuclei synthesis at low temperature is not totally an "off the wall" idea and, secondly, that his scientific reputation allows him to challenge the paradigm. His second assumption proved wrong as soon as the results came out. Four runs were conducted with all possible precautions taken to prevent any contact of the "alchemist" with the installation. The latter was not allowed to enter the room and, at least in one run, one of the investigators took the samples home to be sure that nobody messed with the experiment during the night. Gold did appear in all four runs in quantities far from marginal - around 100 ppm (parts per million) in three runs and 300 ppm in one run. The prosecution of Dr. Bockris started after these results became known. The acquittal by the "court" of five other Distinguished Professors of the University just started the hunt that continued for several years.
However, the most interesting result of the experiment was not the confirmation of the alchemic nuclear reaction, interesting as it was: the reaction was accompanied by a b-decay characteristic of one of the platinum isotopes. Half a year after the first four runs the test was repeated on the same installation with the same materials 20 times and in none of the runs was a trace of gold found. The only difference was that then "alchemist" was no longer around. This gives a hunch that the low temperature nuclear reaction might have been induced by the human intent, in other words, that the biofield might have interfered with the nuclear reaction. Considering also the Lu Zuyin's experiment on americium  (see above), this should be viewed as a viable assumption for further study.
Based on known data, society can assume that the biofield is a real physical reality and studying its properties is a task of paramount scientific and practical importance for mankind. If society can spend billions of dollars in search of dark matter, in attempt to predict whether the Universe will unlimitedly expand or collapse in 50 billion years from now, if we can spend billions of dollars building radio antennas in hope of catching an intelligent radio signal from the space, or send expensive missions to Mars to find some remnants of life there (presume, we found it, then what?), why couldn't we do much better with this money on planet Earth? Why don't we spend a tiny fraction of these funds to study the most peculiar property of the Universe - life - and the fundamental laws of physics as yet unknown?
In 1991 US Congress, in spite of the criticism of many scientists, in its wisdom established the Office of Alternative Medicine within the National Institute of health. In 1998 the status of the Office was upgraded to National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the ongoing studies of alternative therapies contribute to the progress of the National Health Care System. Perhaps the time has come to establish something like a National Center of Alternative Biophysics.
REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. Arp, Halton. Book review: Before the Beginning by M. Rees, The Inflationary Universe by A. Guth and The Whole Shebang: A State-of-the-Universe(s) Report by T. Ferris. Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE) V.13, #2, 1999, pp.341-343
2. Chauvin, Remy. Psychological Research and its Alleged Stagnation, ibid, pp.317-322
3. Beloussov, Lev. Book review: Darwinisme ou La Fin d'un Mythe [Darwinism or the End of a Myth] by Remy Chauvin. ibid, pp.346-348
4. Bockris, John O'M. Book review: Nuclear Transmutation: Cold Fusion by T. Mizuno, ibid, pp.343-346
5. Bogdanov, Alexander. Tectologia: Vseobshchaja Organizatsionnaja Nauka [Tectology: General Science of Organizing - in Russian]. M. 1925
6.Bischof, Marco. The History of Biological Holism and Field Theories in the 20th Century. MISAHA Newsletter, #22-23, 1998, pp.7-11
7. Savva, Savely. A Systems Approach in Biology and Biophysics. MISAHA Newsletter, #18-19, 1997, pp.2-9; see also Savely Savva. Toward a Cybernetic Model of the Organism Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, V.14, # 4, 1998, pp. 292-301; Savely Savva The Biofield and a Cybernetic Model of the Organism: Suggestion for Empirical Study. Proceedings of the 43 Annual meeting of the International Society for Systems Sciences, Asilomar, 1999 - on CD
8. Beloussov, L.V. Delocalization and Coherency in Developing Organisms. In Current Development of Biophysics. C. Zhang, F.A. Popp and M. Bischof editors, Hangzhou University Press, 1996, pp.203-217
9. Lamarck, J-B.P. Zoological Philosophy: an Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals. (1809 first edition), Hafner Pub.Co., NY, 1963, 410p.
10. McCausland, Ian. Anomalies in the History of Relativity. JSE V.13, # 2, 1999, pp.271-290
9. Yan Xin, Lu Zuyin, et.al. The Effect of External Qi on the Rate of 241Am Radioactive Decay. Nature Journal (in Chinese), V.11, # 11, 1988, p. 809; see also MISAHA Newsletter, # 13, 1996, pp. 4-7
11. Dulnev, Gennady. Methodological Bases for Registering Some Anomalous Phenomena. MISAHA Newsletter, # 10, 1995, pp. 2-3
12. Yan Xin, Lu Zuyin, et.al. The Effect of Qigong the Polarization Plane of a Laser Beam. Nature Journal (in Chinese), V.11, # 8, 1988, p. 563; see also MISAHA Newsletter, # 13, 1996, pp. 4-7
13. Yan Xin, Lu Zuyin, et.al. The Effect of Qigong on Raman Spectra of Tap Water, Saline and Glucose Solutions. Nature Journal (in Chinese), V.11, # 8, 1988, p. 567; see also MISAHA Newsletter, # 13, 1996, pp. 4-7
14. Pyatnitsky, L. N. and Fonkin, V. A. Human Consciousness Influence on Water Structure. JSE V. 9, # 1, 1995, pp.89-106
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16. Volchenko, V. N., G. N. Dulnev, G. N. Vassilieva, et al. Study of the K-Phenomenon (in Russian). Parapsychology and Psychophysics, # 5(7), 1992, pp. 35-51
17. Yan Xin, Lu Zuyin, et.al. The Hyperchromic Effect on Nucleic Acid Solutions Induced by Qigong. Nature Journal (in Chinese), V.11, # 9, 1988, p. 647; see also MISAHA Newsletter, # 13, 1996, pp. 4-7
18. Rein, Glen. The In-Vitro Effect of Bioenergy on the Conformational States of Human DNA in Aqueous Solutions. International Journal of Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics. V.20, 1995, pp.173-180
19. Stepanov, A. M and A. M. Mozhaisky. Distant Informational Interaction Between an Organism and Solutions of its Biological Components. Proceedings of the III International Conference: Altered States of Consciousness - Experimental and Theoretical Studies into Parapsychology. Moscow, Russia, April 18-20, 1997, p.35; see also a brief review in MISAHA Newsletter # 16-17, 1997, p.14
20. Ye Z. and Fan, L. The Piezo Effect of Psychic Function of the Human Body (in Chinese). RTGY, # 1(2), 1983, pp. 61-62: Sited from Zhu Ran-long and Zhu Yi-yi The Latest Progress in Somatic Science. Journal of ISLIS, V. 17, # 2, 1999, pp.244-256
21. Dulnev, Gennady. Registration of PK Phenomena: Optical, electrical, and Acoustical Methods. Consciousness and Physical Reality (in Russian), V. 3, # 1, 1998
22. Shen J. and Sun C. The Magnetic Effect Generated at the Points of Human Body under the Qigong State (in Chinese). CJSS, V.1, # 5, 1991, pp.208-210; Referred to in: Zhu Ran-long and Zhu Yi-yi The Latest Progress in Somatic Science. Journal of ISLIS, V. 17, # 2, 1999, pp.244-256
23. Schmidt, Helmut. Progress and Problems in Psychokinesis Research. In The Interrelationship Between Mind and Matter. B. Rubik, Editor.Temple University, 1992, pp.39-56
24. Jahn, Robert, Brenda Dunne, et al. Correlations of Random Binary Sequences with Pre-Stated Operator Intention: A Review of a 12-Year Program. JSE V. 11, # 3, 1997, pp.345-367
25. Hasten, John B. Paranormal Metal Bending. In The Iceland Papers, A. Puharich, Editor, 1979. Republished by The Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Ottawa, Canada, 1996, pp.95-110
26. Song, Kongzhi. The Extence and Significance of Parapsychological Functions. ISLIS, V.17, # 1, 1999, pp.198-210
27. Puthoff, Harold and Russel Targ. Direct Perception of Remote Geographical Locations. In The Iceland Papers, A. Puharich, Editor, 1979. Republished by The Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Ottawa, Canada, 1996, pp.17-47
28. Bisaha, John and B. J. Dunne. Precognitive Remote Viewing in the Chicago Area, a Replication of the Stanford Experiment. In Research in Parapsychology. Metuchen, NJ, 1976 - Other references see in 25 above
29. Zang Changlin. Introduction to Current Development in Biophysics. C. Zhang, F. A. Popp and M. Bischof - Editors. Hangzhou Univ.Press, 1996. Reproduced in MISAHA Newsletter # 16-17, 1997,
30. Rauscher, Elizabeth. Some Physical Models Potentially Applicable to Remote Perception. In The Iceland Papers, A. Puharich, Editor, 1979. Republished by The Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Ottawa, Canada, 1996, pp.49-93
31. Tiller, W. Toward a Predictive Model of Subtle Domain Connections to the Physical Domain Aspect of Reality: The Origins of Wave-Particle Duality, Electric-Magnetic Monopoles and the Mirror Principle. JSE. V.13, # 1, 1999, pp. 41-67 See also William A. Tiller Science and Human Transformation. Pavior Pub. CA, 1999
32. Shipov, G. I. Teoriq fizicheskogo vakuuma (Theory of physical vacuum - in Russian) Moscow NT Centr, 1993 and 1996
33. Inomata, S. Science of Consciousness and new Scientific Worldview. Journal of New Energy. V.2, #3-4, 1997, pp. 101-107
34. Roy, A. The Challenge of Psychical Research (Presidential Address 1994) and Fontana, D. Psychical Research and the Millennium: New Light on the Nature of Man (Presidential Address 1997). both in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. V.58, Part 219, Oct.1998, pages 105 and 125 respectively.
35. James Beichler in his article refers to: Albert Einstein, Kaluza's theories des zusammeneinhanger von Gravitation und Electrizitat. Sitzungberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, V.6, 1927 pp.23-30; Albert Einstein and Peter G. Bergmann. On a Generalization of Kaluza's Theory of Electricity. Annals of Mathematics V.39, 1938, pp.683-701; Albert Einstein, Peter G. Bergmann and Valentine Bergmann. On the Fivedimensional Representation of Gravitation and Electricity. Theodor von Karman Anniversary Volume. Pasadena: California Institute of Technology. 1941, pp. 212-225
36. Beichler, James E. Single Field Unification and Consciousness. Frontier Perspectives, V.8, # 2, 1999, pp.7-14
37. Edmonds,Jr., James D. Variations on the Foundations of Dirac's Quantum Physics. JSE, V.13, # 2, 1999, pp.177-188
38. Cleve Backster - private communication
39. Gariaev, P.P., K.V. Grigoriev, A.A. Vassiliev, V.P. Poponin and V.A. Shcheglov. Investigation of the Fluctuation Dynamics of DNA Solutions by Laser Correlation Spectroscopy (in Russian) Bulletin of the Lebedev Institute of Physics,RAS. # 11-12, 1992, pp. 23-30
40. Benor, D. Healing Research, Vol.1, Helix, UK, 1992, 366 p.
41. The following is an incomplete list of Journals known to the author
Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, Kalamazoo, MI ISSN 0741-9783
Alternative and Complementary Therapies, New York, NY ISSN 1075-5535
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Aliso Viejo, CA, ISSN 1078-6791
Chinese Journal of Somatic Science (CJSS - in Chinese)
Frontier Perspective, Philadelphia, PA ISSN 1062-4767
Japanese Journal of Parapsychology
Journal of the International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS - in English and Japanese) Chiba-shi, Japan, ISSN 1341-9226
Journal of Scientific Exploration, Stanford, CA, ISSN 0892-3310
MISAHA Newsletter, Monterey, CA ISSN 1092-8774
Nature Journal (ZZ - in Chinese)
Parapsychology and Psychophysics (in Russian), Moscow, Russia, ISSN 0869-3323
Research on Paranormal function of the Human Body (RTGY - in Chinese)
Subtle Energies, Bolder CO, ISSN
The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. New York, NY,
The Journal of Parapsychology, Philadelphia, PA, ISSN 0022-3387
The Journal of the Society for Psychic Research London, UK ISSN 0037-1475
The Paranormal Review, UK
The Scientific and Medical NETWORK Review, Scotland, UK ISSN 1362-1211
42. Sheldrake, Ruppert. A New Science of Life. Inner Traditions Intl. Ltd. 1995; Sheldrake, Ruppert. The Presence of the Past: Morphic Resonance and the Habbits of Nature.Inner Traditions Intl. Ltd. 1995
43. Dulnev, Gennady. Registering PK Phenomena. Consciousness and Physical Reality (in Russian), V. 3, # 3, 1998
44. Kokubo, Hideyuki et al. Review of Recent Measurements of Anomalous Bio-Magnetic Fields. ISLIS, V.17, # 1, 1999, pp.20-25
45. Rein, Glen. Quantum Biology: Healing with Subtle Energy. Quantum Biology Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA, 1992
46. Kmetz, John M. Cell Culture Experiments with Dean Kraft at Science Unlimited Research Foundation. Appendix in Dean Kraft: Portrait of a Psychic Healer. Berkley Books, NY, 1981, pp.169-174
47. Savva, Savely. The Concept of MISAHA. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, # 175, 1998, pp.92-95. Reproduced from MISAHA Newsletter # 16-17, 1997, pp.2-6
48. Savva, Savely. MISAHA's Cover Letter to CPMC,s Grant Application. MISAHA Newsletter # 20-21, 1998, pp.5-6
49. Author is indepted to Wayne Jonas, MD for the information and the following references
Beecher, H. K., Surgery as placebo, Journal of the American Medical Association, 176 (1961) 1102-7.
Cobb, L. A., Thomas G. I., Dillard D. H., Merendino K. A. and Bruce R. A., An evaluation of internal-mammary-artery ligation by a double-blind technic, N Engl J Med, 260 (1959) 1115-- 1118.
Johnson, A. G., Surgery as placebo, Lancet, 344 (1994) 1140-2.
Macklin, R., The ethical problems with sham surgery in clinical research, N Engl J Med, 341 (1999) 992-996.
Marschke, G., Beakkm G.N., Stern, W.E., Murray, J.F., Catorid-body removal in asthma, JAMA, 191 (1965) 125.
Moerman, D. E., Physiology and symbols: the anthropological implications of the placebo effect. In LRomanucci-Ross, D. Moerman and L. Taucerdi (Eds.), The Anthropology of Medicine:From Culture to Method, Praeger Scientific, South Hadley, MA, 1983.
Roberts, A. H., Kewman D. G., Mercier L. and Hovell M., The power of nonspecific effects in healing: implications for psychological and biological treatments, Clinical Psychology Review, 13 (1993) 375-91.
50.Four presentations on meta-analyses of published studies on the efficacy of acupuncture conducted in four countries were presented at the July, 1994 meeting of the Office of Alternative Medicine, NIH. References are in Savely Savva Is Acupuncture Good Only for Pain and Drug Abuse? MISAHA Newsletter, #6. 1994, pp.4-5
51. Yu Huihua et al. The Experimental Research on Extraordinary Power of Human Body - Conductive Training of ESP and PK to Young People. ISLIS, V.16, # 1, 1998, pp.120-125
52. Puthoff, H.E. CIA-Initiated Remote Viewing Program at Stanford Research Institute. JSE, V.10, #3, 1996, pp.63-76
53. Pulos, Lee and Garry Richman. Miracles and Other Realities. Omega Press, 1990. See also Lee Pulos. From Egg to Chick in 14 Minutes. MISAHA Newsletter # 10, 1995, pp.4-5 and Pulos' presentation at the annual meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, June, 1999 in Albuquerque, NM
Published in MISAHA Newsletter # 24-27, 1999, pp.2-11
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